Monday, 10 September 2012


Cestodiasis is caused by tapeworm.
TAENIASIS-This disease is caused by the species belonging to the genus Taenia, which include T.SOLIUM and T.SAGINATA. In the intestine the cysticerci develop into adult tapeworm.The presence of tapeworm in intestine causes gastro-intestinal disorder. Some patients complain of hunger pain. Preventation is eating of throughly cooked pork,or beef.
HYDATID-The disease is caused by the hydatid worm,ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS .The primary hosts is dog in which they used eggs which are set free. These are pass out in faeces and develop into onchospheres .In man the hydatid cysts develop in the liver, lungs and tissues and represent the end of the parasitic life-line. The cysts causes inflammation of the tissues. The presence of cysts in the brain and kidney may prove fatal.

Friday, 7 September 2012


The  dorsal lip bears two minute double papillae  where as single papillae are called amphid. The amphidas are probably chemoreceptors , while the other sensory papillae are perhaps tangoreceptors. The posterior end of the male bears ventral 50 pairs of per-anal papillae in front of the cloacal aperture and 5 pairs  of postanal  anal papillae . The first two pairs of post-anal papillae are double. These papillae of the male help in copulation.

Tuesday, 4 September 2012


The diarrhoea is a flagellate parasite,intestinalis. It is present in small intestine. The cell body is pear-shaped with dorsal side convex and ventral side flattened and deepened anteriorly to form a suction groove. The nuclei and four pairs of flagella arranged symmetrically. The parasite divide by binary fission to multiply rapidly and feeds upon aminoacids and vitamins .It causes intestinal disorders leading to epigastric pain, abdominal discomfort,loss of appetite and headache. The transmission of parasite takes place through cysts which are voided with the faces and enters the new hosts . The infection of Girdia is more in children  than in adults .

Saturday, 1 September 2012


The nyctotherus is the intestinal,endo-commensal of amphibians and some invertebrates. The n.ovalis present in the intestine of cockroaches and N.cordiformis i the rectum of frogs. The outer surfaces are oval measuring about 60-120 mew in length. The outer surface bears longtitudinal and slightly spiral rows of cilia.The cytoplasm includes of a contractile vacuoles a macronucleus and food vacuoles.The cytopyge a permanent pore for the egestion of food is located at its hinder end. The nutrition is holozoic and reproduction takes place by binary fission and conjugation.